Types of Heart Surgery  

Heart-related problems have seen an increase in recent years. Although they do not require surgery all the time, once we have some heart related we have to incorporate lifestyle changes to overcome the heart-related problem.

But many times surgery is necessary. Problems such as heart failure, plaque buildup that blocks an artery, faulty heart valves, dilated or diseased blood vessels, and abnormal heart rhythms need heart surgery.

Let us look at types of heart surgery;

 Types of heart surgery

  1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): Coronary artery bypass is the most common type of heart surgery. In this type of surgery, a surgeon replaces the blocked coronary artery with a healthy vein from other parts of your body.

This creates a new pathway for the blood to reach the heart muscle. This often is done for more than one artery during the same surgery. Coronary artery bypass is often referred to as only bypass surgery and is done in the best heart hospital in Bangalore.

Heart valve repair or replacement: This surgery involves replacing the valve of the heart with an artificial valve or a biological one made from pig, cow, or human tissue.

The repair option involves inserting a catheter through a large blood vessel and guiding it to the heart. Then inflating and deflating a small balloon through the catheter will widen a narrow valve.

  1. Insertion of a pacemaker or a defibrillator: Arrhythmia is a condition in which the heart beats too fast and slow and has an irregular rhythm. If medication does not work, a pacemaker needs to be implanted inside the skin of the chest with wires connecting it to heart chambers.

The sensors of the pacemaker detect when the functions of the heart go irregular. The pacemaker then uses electric pulses to control the rhythm of the heart. A defibrillator works in a similar way but it uses electric shock to restore the heart rhythm.

  1. Maze Surgery: In maze surgery, the surgeon creates a pathway of the scar tissue of the upper heart chamber to redirect electrical signals with more control to the lower heart chamber. This is created so as to block the electrical signals that cause atrial fibrillation.
  1. Aneurysm repair: A weak portion of the heart is replaced with a graft to repair any bulges in the walls or the heart of the wall or any heart muscle.
  1. Heart Transplant: It is basically removing the heart and replacing it with another healthy heart from a donor.
  1. Insertion of a Ventricular Assist Device (VAD): A ventricular assist device or VAD is like a pump that is helpful in supporting the overall heart function and blood flow.
  2. Insertion of Total Artificial heart (TAH): A total artificial heart or TAH is a device that is capable of replacing the two lower chambers of the heart.
  1. Transcatheter structural heart surgery: It involves guiding a flexible tube ie a catheter into your heart through blood vessels that can be accessed through different parts of the body. It basically involves replacing a faulty aortic valve with a valve made from animal tissue.

Now that we know the kind of surgeries that are required and what the role of each surgery is, it is imperative we need to know the risks associated with any heart surgery.

Risks of heart surgery

Although many cardiologists are experienced and there is almost no risk of failure but they have their risk as they are major surgeries. The risks associated are;

  1. Bleeding: Many patients are not able to deal with so much blood loss. Almost all heart surgeries involve excessive bleeding, for some, it can be a life or death situation.
  2. Infection: Especially for open-heart surgeries, chances of infections increase because of the exposure to the environment
  3. Reactions to anesthesia: Many people develop a reaction to anesthesia
  4. Body Part Damage: Many a time heart surgery can cause damage to the tissues of the heart, kidneys, liver, and lungs
  5. Stroke: There is a chance of stroke is any artery breaks and causes leakage in blood vessels which can lead to hemorrhagic stroke
  6. Death

The risk related to heart surgery can increase especially if you already have other problems like diabetes, peripheral artery disease, or any lung disease, etc.

Conclusion:

It is important that before going through a heart surgery even for yourself or your loved ones. There are many heart hospitals in Bangalore that offer the best services. But the ones that expertise in all the types of surgery and have a specially trained cardiac anesthesiologist for care before and after your surgery.

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